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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Ahtiluoto, 2010
Cohort: Vantaa 85+ Study
Risk Factor: Diabetes Mellitus

Average Follow-up Time Detail
Participants were at least 85 years old and non-demented at the time of baseline assessments, which took place between April 1991 and March 1992. Follow-up assessments for incidence of AD and dementia were carried out in 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2001.

Exposure Detail
Diabetes diagnosis was determined from self-reports, medical records indicating history of diabetes, or use of insulin/antidiabetic medications.

"Diabetes was assessed according to self-report or medical record of diabetes diagnosed by a physician or use of oral antidiabetic medication or insulin. Individuals were classified as having diabetes if diagnosis of diabetes was found at baseline or during follow-up."

Ethnicity Detail
No information has been reported on the distribution of ethnicities in this cohort. All participants were residents of a city in Southern Finland.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
AD Diagnosis:
DSM IIIR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III-Revised
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

Total Dementia Definition: Dementia via DSM-III-R

"Individuals were considered to have dementia if they fulfilled criteria of DSM-III-R12 and the duration of dementia symptoms was at least 3 months. Assessments were based on data obtained from interviews, health examinations, previous health and social work records, and tests of cognitive function and functional capacity. The National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association13 criteria were used for clinical diagnosis of AD and criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche en l’Enseignement en Neurosciences14 criteria were used for clinical diagnosis of VaD. Clinical dementia diagnoses were made as consensus by 2 neurologists."

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

"Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for dementia development. In multivariate analyses, baseline age, gender, education level, and the presence of at least one APOE 4 allele were included as covariates in Cox models."

AD Covariates:
APOE4APOE e4 genotype

TD Covariates:
APOE4APOE e4 genotype