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Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
The investigators ascertained exposure information by accessing pharmacy records which were available after July 1991. They obtained information on filled prescriptions for all participants. The investigators reported results separately for ever/never statin use, lipophilic statin use, non-lipohilic statin use, duration of use, and dosage of use. This entry pertains to results with a 1 year time lag.
The investigators compared incident AD risk in two groups: the group of participants who used at least one prescription of statins in the year prior to the event date (i.e. diagnosis of dementia, end of the study period, or death) ("Ever used") and the reference group of participants who did not use statins or any cholesterol lowering drugs in the year prior to the event date ("Never used"). Approximately 1% of participants had used or were using statins in the year prior to the AD assessment.
All participants were residents of the Ommoord district of Rotterdam. No other information regarding ethnicity was given.
All participants were 55 years of age or older.
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly
Geriatric Mental State Schedule (Copeland 1976)
Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III-Revised
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
Total dementia definition:
Dementia via DSM-IIIR
A panel consisting of a neurologist, neurophysiologist, and a research physician made diagnoses using a three step process. Participants who had a MMSE score of less than 26 or GMS organic level greater than 0 were considered screen-positives and were asked to take the CAMDEX exam, neurological testing and imaging (if available). The panel made diagnoses of dementia and its subtypes by using DSMIII-R and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria.
Covariates & Analysis Detail
Cox proportional hazards regression
body mass index
systolic blood pressure
use of a cholesterol-lowering drug other than a statin